jueves, 19 de agosto de 2010

World Trade Center, el Ground Zero

World Trade Center site

Aerial view of the World Trade Center site, September 23, 2001.

The World Trade Center site (ZIP code: 10048), also known as "Ground Zero" after the September 11 attacks, sits on 16 acres (65,000 m2) in Lower Manhattan in New York City.[1] The World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the attacks; Studio Daniel Libeskind, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation oversee the reconstruction of the site. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land (except for 7 World Trade Center). Developer Larry Silverstein holds the lease to retail and office space in four of the site's buildings.[2]

While the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is often identified as the owner of the WTC site, the ownership situation is actually somewhat complex and ambiguous.[3] While the Port Authority indeed owns a "significant" internal portion of the 16-acre site, the Port Authority has acknowledged "ambiguities over ownership of miscellaneous strips of property at the World Trade Center site," going back to the 1960's. Two and a half acres of land at the site, representing the land where streets had been located prior to the development of the World Trade Center, have unclear ownership.

[edit] Before the World Trade Center occupied the site

The WTC site was occupied by Radio Row and the Hudson Terminal during the 20th century. Both were demolished to make way for the World Trade Center. In addition, at least one notable event occurred on the World Trade Center site: Adriaen Block's ship, the Tyger, burned to the waterline in November 1613, and was left where it was, to be rediscovered in 1916. The shipwreck led to the construction of the Onrust.

[edit] September 11 attacks

Main article: September 11 attacks

Ground Zero debris with markup showing building locations.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, two hijacked planes bound for Los Angeles were intentionally crashed into the two towers of the World Trade Center. The towers collapsed within two hours of the collisions.[4] Terrorists affiliated with Al-Qaeda and others organized and executed the attacks, in which approximately 3,000 people died. After the attacks, hospital workers and police officers began referring to the World Trade Center site as "Ground Zero".[5]

[edit] Debris and cleanup

Further information: Rescue and recovery effort after the September 11 attacks

Debris from the World Trade Center, 2001.

The collapse of the towers spread dust across New York City and left hundreds of thousands of tons of debris at the site.[6] To organize the cleanup and search for survivors and for human remains, the New York Fire Department divided the disaster site into four sectors, each headed by its own chief.[7] Early estimates suggested that debris removal would take a year, but cleanup ended in May 2002, under budget and without a single serious injury.[8][9] Three years later, in February 2005, the New York City Medical Examiner's office ended its process of identifying human remains at the site.[10]

According to experts, when WTC 1 (the North Tower) collapsed, falling debris struck 7 World Trade Center and ignited fires on multiple floors. The uncontrolled fires ultimately led to the progressive collapse of the structure.[11] Portions of the South Tower also damaged the nearby Deutsche Bank Building, which soon became filled with toxic dust. By 2002, Deutsche Bank determined that its building was unsalvageable. It is in the process of being demolished.[12]

Cleanup workers trucked most of the building materials and debris from Ground Zero to Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island. Some people, such as those affiliated with World Trade Center Families for Proper Burial, worried that human remains might also have been (inadvertently) transported to the landfill.[10]

The World Trade Center site 17 days after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Buildings surrounding the site of the collapsed towers are fitted with mesh to prevent further damage and large construction vehicles are being used to clear debris.

In August 2008, New York City firefighters donated a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center to the Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company.[13] The beam, mounted atop a platform shaped like the Pentagon, was erected outside the Shanksville firehouse near the crash site of United Airlines Flight 93.[14]

In December 2001, a temporary viewing platform at Fulton Street, between Church Street and Broadway, opened to the public.[15]

Every year on September 11, a temporary memorial called Tribute in Light – consisting of two parallel, vertical beams of light – was projected from the site. Since construction has begun, however, the tribute may cease.[16]

[edit] Archaeology

In July 2010 a team of archaeologists at the site discovered the remains of a 32-foot-long boat over 200 years old; it was probably made in the 18th century and dumped there along with wooden beams and trash about 1810 to make up the land.[17] The boat had been weighted to make it sink as part of foundations for a new pier. Samples of its wood have been taken for dendrochronology.

[edit] Rebuilding

Soon after the September 11 attacks, Mayor Rudy Giuliani, Governor George Pataki, and President George W. Bush vowed to rebuild the World Trade Center site. On the day of the attacks, Giuliani proclaimed, "We will rebuild. We're going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. The skyline will be made whole again."[18] During a visit to the site on September 14, 2001, Bush spoke to a crowd of cleanup workers through a bullhorn. An individual in the crowd shouted, "I can't hear you," to which Bush replied, "I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon."[19]

In a later address before Congress, the president declared, "As a symbol of America's resolve, my administration will work with Congress, and these two leaders, to show the world that we will rebuild New York City."[20] The immediate response from World Trade Center leaseholder Larry Silverstein was that "it would be the tragedy of tragedies not to rebuild this part of New York. It would give the terrorists the victory they seek."[21]

A light still on at Ground Zero remains, 2001..

The World Trade Center site after cleanup, 2003.

From the south, a view of ongoing excavation in July 2002. The slurry wall circumscribing the site is visible, as is the damaged Verizon Building in the background.

Visitor and observation plaza, 2005.

Aerial view of the site from the northwest, 2002.

Construction as of March 2, 2010. The frame for Tower 4 can be seen rising on the left.

Overhead, April 2010

From the 30th floor of the W Hotel, July 28, 2010

[edit] Lower Manhattan Development Corporation

Governor Pataki established the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) in November 2001, as an official commission to oversee the rebuilding process.[22] The LMDC coordinates federal assistance in the rebuilding process, and works with the Port Authority, Larry Silverstein, and Studio Daniel Libeskind, the master plan architect for the site's redesign. The corporation also handles communication with the local community, businesses, the city of New York, and relatives of victims of the September 11 attacks.[23] A 16-member board of directors, half appointed by the governor and half by the mayor of New York, governs the LMDC.[24]

The LMDC had questionable legal status regarding the restoration of the World Trade Center site, because the Port Authority owns most of the property and Larry Silverstein leased the World Trade Center's office space in July 2001. But the LMDC, in an April 2002 articulation of its principles for action, asserted its role in revitalizing lower Manhattan.[25]

[edit] Early proposals for redesign

In the months following the attacks, architects and urban planning experts held meetings and forums to discuss ideas for rebuilding the site.[26] In January 2002, New York City art dealer Max Protetch solicited 50 concepts and renderings from artists and architects, which were put on exhibit in his Chelsea art gallery.[27]

In April 2002, the LMDC sent out requests for proposals to redesign the World Trade Center site to 24 Manhattan architecture firms, but then soon withdrew them. The following month, the LMDC selected Beyer Blinder Belle as planner for the redesign of the World Trade Center site.[28]

On July 16, 2002, Beyer Blinder Belle unveiled six concepts for redesigning the World Trade Center site.[29] All six designs were voted "poor" by the roughly 5,000 New Yorkers that submitted feedback, so the LDMC announced a new, international, open-design study.[30]

[edit] 2002 World Trade Center site design competition

In an August 2002 press release, the LMDC announced a design study for the World Trade Center site.[31] The following month, the LMDC, along with New York New Visions – a coalition of 21 architecture, engineering, planning, landscape architecture and design organizations – announced seven semifinalists. The following seven architecture firms were then invited to compete to be the master plan architect for the World Trade Center:

Peterson Littenberg, a small New York architecture firm, had been enlisted by the LMDC earlier that summer as a consultant, and was invited to participate as the seventh semifinalist.[33]

The seven semifinalists presented their entries to the public on December 18, 2002 at the Winter Garden of the World Financial Center. In the following weeks, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill withdrew its entry from the competition.[34]

Days before the announcement of the two finalists in February 2003, Larry Silverstein wrote to LMDC Chair John Whitehead to express his disapproval of all of the semifinalists' designs. As the Twin Towers' insurance money recipient, Silverstein claimed that he had the sole right to decide what would be built. He announced that he had already picked Skidmore, Owings & Merrill as his master planner for the site.[35]

On February 1, 2003, the LMDC selected two finalists, the THINK Team and Studio Daniel Libeskind, and planned on picking a single winner by the end of the month.

Rafael Viñoly of the THINK Team and Studio Daniel Libeskind presented their designs to the LMDC, which selected the THINK design. Earlier the same day, however, Roland Betts, a member of the LMDC, had called a meeting and the corporation had agreed to vote for the THINK design before hearing the final presentations. Governor Pataki, who had originally commissioned the LMDC, intervened and overruled the LMDC's decision.[36] On February 27, 2003, Studio Daniel Libeskind officially won the competition to be the master planner for the World Trade Center redesign.

Libeskind's original proposal, which is titled Memory Foundations, underwent extensive revisions during collaboration with Larry Silverstein, and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, whom Silverstein hired. Though Libeskind designed the site, the individual buildings have been designed by different architects.

Detailed information about Libeskind's Memory Foundations site plan can be accessed here.

[edit] Towers

One World Trade Center (previously coined the "Freedom Tower" by Governor Pataki) is the centerpiece of Libeskind's design. The building will rise to 1,362 feet, the height of the original World Trade Center south tower, and its antenna will rise to the symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m). The antenna's height refers to 1776, the year in which the United States Declaration of Independence was signed.

The tower was a collaboration between Studio Daniel Libeskind and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill architect David Childs.[37] Childs acted as the design architect and project manager for the tower, and Daniel Libeskind collaborated on the concept and schematic design.[38]

British architect Norman Foster designed Tower Two, also known as 200 Greenwich Street. The building's distinctive slanted, diamond-shaped roof echoes Libeskind's original sketches for the building.

Richard Rogers Partnership designed Tower Three, or 175 Greenwich Street, which stands across Greenwich Street from the Memorial's two reflecting pools.

Maki and Associates designed Tower Four, also known as 150 Greenwich Street.[39][40]

Tower 5 was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and will stand where the Deutsche Bank building once stood. On June 22, 2007, the Port Authority announced that JP Morgan Chase will lease the 42-story building for its investment banking headquarters.[41][42]

7 World Trade Center stands off of Port Authority property. David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designed the tower, which opened in May 2006.

View of Ground Zero from the 45th floor of the completed 7 World Trade Center in September 2006.

[edit] Memorial

Main article: World Trade Center Memorial

A memorial called "Reflecting Absence" honors the victims of the September 11 attacks and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. The memorial, designed by Peter Walker and Israeli-American architect Michael Arad, consists of a field of trees interrupted by the footprints of the twin towers. Pools of water fill the footprints, underneath which sits a memorial space whose walls bear the names of the victims. The slurry wall, which holds back the Hudson River in the west and was an integral part of Libeskind's proposal, remains exposed.[43]

Walker and Arad were selected from more than 5,000 entrants in the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition in January 2004. Construction of the memorial is due to be completed by September 11, 2011.[44][45]

[edit] Museum and PATH Station

Entrance to the PATH at the World Trade Center

On October 12, 2004, the LMDC announced that Gehry Partners LLP and Snøhetta would design the site's performing arts and museum complexes, respectively.[46]

The Snøhetta-designed museum will now act as a memorial museum and visitors' center, after family members of 9/11 victims objected to the building's original occupant, the International Freedom Center.[47]

Gehry's performing arts complex will now house only the Joyce Theater, because the Signature Theater Company dropped out due to space constraints and cost limitations.[47]

Santiago Calatrava designed the World Trade Center Transportation Hub (its main asset being the PATH station) to replace the old World Trade Center station.[48] The Port Authority will cool the new station, as well as the September 11 Memorial and Museum, via a heat exchanger fed by four pipes carrying water from the Hudson River. [49]

[edit] Cordoba House

In 2010, controversy arose concerning the development of Cordoba House, a mosque and cultural center planned at a site two blocks from the World Trade Center site. The builders say it is intended to represent moderate Islam.[50] But, given its proximity to Ground Zero, it has stirred controversy among people suspicious of the motives behind it, and led to comments for and against it being built at that location from families of 9/11 victims, politicians, organizations, and academics.[51]

[edit] Construction

As of May 2010[update], progress on the construction of the redesigned site is as follows:

[edit] See also

New York City portal


Wikimedia Commons has media related to: World Trade Center site

[edit] References

  1. ^ Barry, Dan (September 24, 2001). "A Nation Challenged - The Site: 'At the Scene of Random Devastation, a Most Orderly Mission'". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0DEFDD143AF937A1575AC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  2. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (March 27, 2008). "Developer Sues to Win $12.3 Billion in 9/11 Attack". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/27/nyregion/27rebuild.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  3. ^ Dunlap, David W. (April 22, 2004). "Who Owns Ground Zero? Don't Expect a Simple Answer". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/22/nyregion/22blocks.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  4. ^ "US Shocked by Terror Attacks". BBC News. September 11, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1538929.stm#map. Retrieved 2009-12-31 
  5. ^ Barry, Dan (September 12, 2001). "A DAY OF TERROR: HOSPITALS; Pictures of Medical Readiness, Waiting and Hoping for Survivors to Fill Their Wards". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980DE1D91238F931A2575AC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  6. ^ Barry, Dan (September 17, 2001). "AFTER THE ATTACKS: THE TALLY; With No Miracle in the Rubble, Hope Grimly Shifts to Acceptance". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07E1D8173BF934A2575AC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  7. ^ Barry, Dan (September 24, 2010). "A NATION CHALLENGED: THE SITE; At the Scene of Random Devastation, a Most Orderly Mission". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0DEFDD143AF937A1575AC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  8. ^ Iovine, Julie V. (September 27, 2001). "Designers Look Beyond Debris". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E7DB103AF934A1575AC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  9. ^ "The Last Steel Column". The New York Times. May 30, 2002. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F02E4D71E3BF933A05756C0A9649C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  10. ^ a b Hirschkorn, Phil (February 23, 2005). "Identification of 9/11 remains comes to end". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/02/22/wtc.identifications/index.html 
  11. ^ "NIST News Release: NIST WTC 7 Investigation Finds Building Fires Caused Collapse". NIST. 2008-08-21. http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/wtc082108.html. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  12. ^ Varchaver, Nicholas (March 20, 2008). "The tombstone at Ground Zero". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/2008/03/19/news/companies/ground_zero.fortune/index.htm 
  13. ^ GANASSI, MICHELLE (2008-08-25). "NY firefighter donating steel to Shanksville". Daily American cv. http://www.dailyamerican.com/articles/2008/08/22/news/news/news808.txt. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  14. ^ Gaskell, Stephanie (2008-08-25). "Pa. site of 9/11 crash gets WTC beam". New York Daily news. http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2008/08/24/2008-08-24_pa_site_of_911_crash_gets_wtc_beam.html. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  15. ^ Hirschkorn, Phil (December 30, 2001). "A NATION CHALLENGED: GROUND ZERO; First Viewing Platform Opens to the Public". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0CE0D71630F933A05751C1A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  16. ^ Dunlap, David W. (September 9, 2006). "Twin Beams to Light Sky Again. But After 2008?". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/09/nyregion/09light.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  17. ^ Daily Telegraph, Friday 16 July 2010, page 16; [1], with images, [2], [3], [4], [5]
  18. ^ Taylor, Tess (September 26, 2001). "Rebuilding in New York". Architecture Week. http://www.architectureweek.com/2001/0926/today.html. 
  19. ^ Walsh, Edward (September 15, 2001). "Bush Encourages N.Y. Rescuers" (PDF). The Washington Post: pp. A10. http://old.911digitalarchive.org/crr/documents/1126.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  20. ^ "Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People". The White House. September 20, 2001. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html. 
  21. ^ Litt, Steven (September 17, 2001). "In place of the Trade Center; Ideas range from building new towers to playground". Plain Dealer (Cleveland). 
  22. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard (November 3, 2001). "A NATION CHALLENGED: DOWNTOWN; State Plans Rebuilding Agency, Perhaps Led by Giuliani". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFD81639F930A35752C1A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  23. ^ "A Corporation to Rebuild Ground Zero". The New York Times. November 4, 2001. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/04/opinion/a-corporation-to-rebuild-ground-zero.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  24. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (November 29, 2001). "Governor and Mayor Name Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Corporation". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=2b0bfde6-61b6-48f9-a6ca-70475846c95b. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  25. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (April 9, 2002). "Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Announces Principles for Development and Blueprint for Renewal for World Trade Center Site". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=112d53af-0d20-44ec-89d7-23f397b5a569. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  26. ^ McGuigan, Cathleen (November 12, 2001). "Up From The Ashes". Newsweek. 
  27. ^ Wyatt, Edward (January 11, 2002). "Everyone Weighs In With Rebuilding Ideas". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/12/nyregion/ground-zero-the-proposals-everyone-weighs-in-with-rebuilding-ideas.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  28. ^ Muschamp, Herbert (May 23, 2002). "An Appraisal; Marginal Role for Architecture at Ground Zero". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9404EEDB1E38F930A15756C0A9649C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  29. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (July 16, 2002). "Port Authority and Lower Manhattan Developent (sic) Corporation Unveil Six Concepts Plans for World Trade Center Site, Adjacent Areas and Related Transportation". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=b3aa6fb4-ebb6-48e3-ba62-c92bce75a647. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  30. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (September 17, 2002). "Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and New York New Visions Announce Panel to Help Select Teams to Participate in Design Study of World Trade Center Site and Surrounding Areas". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=633a746a-8f04-40ea-85aa-4f58639a2d20. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  31. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (August 14, 2002). "Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Announces Design Study for World Trade Center Site and Surrounding Areas". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=da800006-c35b-4f1c-a9ec-ff53cfe45ae2. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  32. ^ Iovine, Julie (February 26, 2003). "Turning a Competition Into a Public Campaign; Finalist for Ground Zero Design Pull Out the Stops". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE6DD173CF935A15751C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  33. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (September 26, 2002). "Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Announces Six Teams of Architects and Planners to Participate in Design Study of World Trade Center Site". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=655798f4-b8ee-4583-bf27-b3b9a9c29f1f. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  34. ^ McGeveran, Tom (February 9, 2003). "Beauty Contest: Two Firms Vie At W.T.C. Site". The New York Observer. http://www.observer.com/node/47085. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  35. ^ Libeskind, Daniel (2004). Breaking Ground. New York: Riverhead Books. pp. 164. ISBN 1-57322-292-5. 
  36. ^ Libeskind, Daniel (2004). Breaking Ground. New York: Riverhead Books. pp. 166, 181, 183. ISBN 1-57322-292-5. 
  37. ^ "Freedom Tower: About the Building". Silverstein Properties. http://www.wtc.com/about/freedom-tower. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  38. ^ Lerner, Kevin (August 2003). "Libeskind and Silverstein reach an agreement for WTC site". Architectural Record. 
  39. ^ "World Trade Center Towers". Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. http://www.renewnyc.com/ThePlan/world_trade_center_towers.asp. 
  40. ^ NY1 Exclusive: Developer Says WTC Project To Be Complete In Five, Six Years NY1. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
  41. ^ Naanes, Marlene (June 22, 2007). "JP Morgan releases WTC tower plans". AM New York. http://www.amny.com/news/local/am-wtc0622,0,6464804.story?coll=am-local-headlines. 
  42. ^ Appelbaum, Alec (July 30, 2007). "Kohn Responds to WTC5 Criticisms". Architectural Record. http://archrecord.construction.com/news/daily/archives/070730wtc.asp. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  43. ^ "Reflecting Absence". Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. 2004. http://www.wtcsitememorial.org/fin7.html. 
  44. ^ The politics of remembering Ground Zero - Haaretz - Israel News
  45. ^ Cuza, Bobby (August 10, 2010). "Media Get Sneak Peek Of 9/11 Museum Site". NY1. http://www.ny1.com/content/top_stories/123505/media-get-sneak-peek-of-9-11-museum-site. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  46. ^ www.RenewNYC.org (October 12, 2004). "The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Announces Selection of Architectural Firms to Design the Performing Arts Complex and the Museum Complex on the World Trade Center Site". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=b60c011b-187b-44b8-b764-1b4381427018. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  47. ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin (March 28, 2007). "Ground Zero Arts Center Loses Theater Company". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/28/arts/28zero.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  48. ^ Dunlap, David W. (July 2, 2008). "Design of Ground Zero Transit Hub Is Trimmed". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/02/nyregion/02path.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  49. ^ Dunlap, David W. (April 6, 2009). "Using the Hudson to Cool the Trade Center". The New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/06/using-the-hudson-to-cool-the-trade-center/. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  50. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph; Mowjood, Sharaf (December 9, 2009). "Muslim Prayers and Renewal Near Ground Zero". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/09/nyregion/09mosque.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  51. ^ Jackson, Joe; Hutchinson, Bill (May 6, 2010). "Plan for mosque near World Trade Center site moves ahead". Daily News (New York). http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/05/06/2010-05-06_plan_for_mosque_near_world_trade_center_site_moves_ahead.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  52. ^ "Freedom Tower". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/about/freedom-tower. 
  53. ^ "Tower 2". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/about/office-tower-2/office-tower-2-schedule. 
  54. ^ "WTC Construction Update, April". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/news/wtc-site-construction-update-april-2008. 
  55. ^ "Tower 4 Schedule". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/about/office-tower-4/office-tower-4-schedule. 
  56. ^ "Work to Resume at Burned Bank Tower". The New York Times. The Associated Press. May 1, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/01/nyregion/01deutsche.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  57. ^ "Tower 5". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/about/office-tower-5. 
  58. ^ "Tower 7". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/about/office-tower-7. 
  59. ^ "Memorial & Museum, Schedule". Silverstein Properties. 2008. http://www.wtc.com/about/memorial-and-museum-schedule. 
  60. ^ http://wtc.com/about/performing-arts-center

[edit] External links

Coordinates: 40°42′42″N 74°00′44″W / 40.711641°N 74.012253°W / 40.711641; -74.012253

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario